States were conspicuous for their radicalism among the other Eastern European
countries in regard to the science reforms after 1990. Till 1990, despite of
being subjected to the USSR, the Eastern European countries still managed to
carry out comparatively independent science policy. Like all the other
republics of USSR, the Baltic countries were forced to deputize and follow up
obediently all the rules imposed by the USSR. After 1990 the preexisting
science administration system was completely abolished in the Baltic States
and a new one was gradually introduced. The Baltic academies of sciences
underwent a transformation from ministries of science to the academies of
individual members with the former institutes becoming independent and later
being incorporated within the universities.
After a democratic voting in the fall of 1990 the newly formed Council of
Science settled on the introduction of grant system in all spheres of science
financing. The grant system accustomed the Latvian scientists with the
financing principles operating in the Western world and subjecting the
projects and their performance results to a rather thorough expertise.
One can distinguishe two main characteristics of the last decade in the development of the Latvia’s science:
transition from being a part of a large country’s (USSR) science to the science of a small country;
hope for a full-scale entry to the new united space of European science.
It could be considred that to
a certain extent the Latvia’s science is alreday in Europe by taking part in
many common programmes and projects financed by the European Union or by some
Western European country. The EU, NATO and Western countries provide financial
support for the participation of Latvian scientists in international
conferences etc. Entry to the united space of European science implies an
idiomatic return to the model of the Latvia’s science being part of a big
The specific science policy of Latvia is features by several basic documents:
Janis Stradins. Guidelines
of Science in Latvia: Historical Development and Contemporary Real Facts.
presented at the 8th Baltic Conference on Intellectual Co-operation
(Tallinn, Estonia, June 15 -16, 2001). Published in: National
Strategies of Research in Smaller European Countries. Tallinn: Estonian
Academy of Sciences, 2001, pp. 41-46.
Juris Ekmanis. The Present Situation of Science in Latvia. Paper presented at the 8th Baltic Conference on Intellectual Co-operation (Tallinn, Estonia, June 15 -16, 2001). Published in: National Strategies of Research in Smaller European Countries. Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Sciences, 2001, pp. 47-52.
Latvia Human Development Report 1999. The United Nations Development Programme, 2000. Ed.: Talis Tisenkopfs. Chapter 3: An Information Society and New Technologies. Conclusion: Knowledge Based Human Development.
Report on the
Development of Economy of Latvia in 2000 (December 2000). Prepared by the
Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Latvia. Chapter 5: Priorities and Reforms
of Economic Policy; Chapter 6: Recommendations.
Concept for Sustainable Development. Summary. Prepared by work group J.Bikis et al. (December 2000).
National Concept on Innovation (accepted by the Cabinet of Ministers of Latvia on 27 February 2001).
Industrial Development Guidelines of Latvia (accepted by the Cabinet of Ministers of Latvia on 20 March 2001).
Action Plan for Improvement of Business Environment (accepted by the Cabinet of Ministers of Latvia on 10 July 2001).
Long-term Economic Strategy of Latvia (accepted by the Cabinet of Ministers of Latvia on 17 July 2001) (in Latvian).
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